Blue is a color which took long time to come into existence and eventually gain the popularity which it has this day. When Homer wrote his epic poem the Iliad and the Odyssey, there was no “Blue yonder” but only an ocean filled with adventure described as the “ wine red sea”. According to a theory by Hugo Magnus, the famous poet Homer and contemporaries could not yet see blue as a color but later as the human species evolved, their eyes could see blue. Language picked up the new perception and coined the word “blue”. Magnus was confusing the biological function of sight with perception which is created by culture. So if Hugo was wrong , when and how did the sea become blue?
The history of color is huge and beyond pure science. Color naming is made by societies with their own words, languages and cultural perceptions. For example, in the European culture of the high middle ages, the colors of importance included red, white and black. Green was added as a noun for vegetation and then last in place was blue. Skies in art works were painted red, white, or gold, not blue. Blue, however, played a role among the peasantry who wore clothes dyed with woad, which made the color of fabric slightly blue. This was a Germanic and Celtic tradition.
By the 13th century, Pope Innocent III had gained singular authority over Church practices.In his papal decrees, he outlined the specific colors to be used for the Catholic mass. Blue was never mentioned but red, white and black were. However, in the stained glass windows of the 12th century churches, blue glass was used in the backgrounds to allow more light through the stained windows.
Finally, by the high medieval period, artists found an aesthetic role for blue. Mosaics and holy book illuminations of the early Christian era used blue often. By the Carolingian period of the 9th century, blue was used in miniature paintings, especially as a background color. The robes of the emperor and those of the Virgin Mary and the Saints were often painted in blue. The meaning here of blue became one of divine presence . As artistic technology improved, blue became less murky and was used to bring light and celestial illumination to a painting or stained glass window. While the aesthetic role of this color was more and more appreciated, many debates about the true nature of color intensified and continued on. These debates centered on the question of whether color was of matter or light. How the ocean became blue since the time of Homer’s epic remained unanswered. For interested readers, the story can be found in Michel Pastoureau book Blue…, which is one in a series he has written on various colors. These books are beautifully illustrated. Blue:The History of Color.https://www.portersquarebooks.com/search/site/Blue%3A%20The%20History%20of%20Color
Catching up to modern times, the color blue connotes a general impression of calm, coolness, quiet and unassuming qualities. When blue is used in food, however, it suppressed the appetite. A shade of blue like dark blue connotes integrity, professionalism, and power while light blue suggest softness, healing and understanding. In relationships, blue has a calm, peace loving albeit distant sex appeal. People who like blue make good partners and are in control. Blue-eyed people have the second most eye color and are believed to be tough and have stamina.
Blue is symbolic for masculinity so dark blue pants on men look especially fashionable. Women wear blue,too, just lighter and may be matched with a forest green, mint, white , or scarlet top. Blue is an outstanding logo color. It exudes reliability, stability, and trustworthy, intellectual qualities. One finds conservative corporations use blue frequently in their logos. Blue logos are found with technology and health industries,too. Indigo, a form of blue, speaks “new age” while bankers, lawyers, and educators like to use indigo. This indigo blue works well with magenta, turquoise, and emerald. For color blind readers, it may be good to know that using the contrast colors of : black and white; or yellow and blue create greater readability for this particular audience.
“Birds and humans prefer blue because of the color’s association with all things pure”.
William Henry Hudson, Birds and Man
Lastly, colors have different meanings depending upon where they are used geographically throughout the world. As mentioned previously, in the US blue symbolizes masculinity for the most part while in China, blue symbolizes “the feminine”. For Hindus, blue represents immortality and Krishna. For the Ukrainians, blue means healing and in Turkey, Greece, and Albania, blue will repel evil.
- Michel Pastoureau, Blue: The History of Color, 2001,Princeton University Press
This autumn, as I was visiting Cambridge, MA.and walking in the neighborhood, two turkeys,male and female, were also walking in the street and then along a sidewalk. Naturally, I wanted to catch up with them and we walked along for a block or two . Astonishingly, they seemed to have no fear of cars or humans. At one point , I thought the turkeys would follow me back to where I was staying or maybe get lost. So I walked ahead, looked back at Mr. and Mrs. Turkey, and then continued my way back to my lodgings. Oddly enough, these turkeys also stopped and then turned back and trotted on home. All this is to suggest that a Thanksgiving meal does not have to include turkey meat. See the link below for some scrumptious recipes from the New York Times food section, that are vegetarian. Enjoy!
New York Times : Vegan Thanksgiving Recipes https://cooking.nytimes.com/68861692-nyt-cooking/445045-a-vegetarian-thanksgiving-117-recipes?action=click&module=RelatedCoverage&pgtype=Article®ion=Footer
The Madison Museum of Contemporary Art is located in downtown Madison, Wisconsin. Within the museum are galleries, a gift shop, lecture hall, and a roof-top restaurant and bar, all partially enclosed by glass walls on a corner of iconic State Street. One fall evening, I walked into the gallery showing the art of Joel Shapiro’s Bronzes. How fun! His pieces of sculpture are massive and seem either a little off balance or meticulously constructed to keep balanced despite their appearance. It was a challenge to imagine how Shapiro got the bronze beams to stand upright without fear of them falling over. The size of these sculptures are also huge; every piece could stand its own in the outdoor landscape. Comparing the heights of people viewing the show with the art structures empathized their monumental quality. Besides the impression that the medium of bronze gives; looking at them, the viewer finds they also suggest figures that may be dancing or walking. The show continues through January 13th, 2019 at MMOC. The artist Joel Shapiro has created a gallery space which is fun and is interactive simply by looking.
It is interesting to know that Shapiro was influenced by Indian sculpture when he served as a Peace Corp volunteer in India. He felt that sculpture depicted
” the dynamism of human form”.
Robert Morris, Richard Serra and Donald Judd also influenced his art.
Joel Shapiro, according to an interview with the Brooklynrail.org, grew up in a leftist, well-educated neighborhood of New York city. Briefly, he and his family moved to Texas during WWII but then moved back to Sunnyside Gardens, a planned community expressing utopian ideals through architecture in New York city. After 2 years in India during the 60’s , he returned to graduate school at NYU. His art moves back and forth between abstraction and representation.
” I think abstraction is simply an act of tremendous faith and very difficult and painful to sustain.” Joel Shapiro
Shapiro’s reputation extends internationally, having shown his work at 160 solo exhibits. Currently, perhaps, Joel Shapiro is exploring the idea of : “the projection of thought into space without the constraint of architecture.”
“Color provided the key to light and shade in painting, in such a way that chiaroscuro should be a function of color, not a part of design in the academic manner.” Roger de Piles, 1655, “Dialogue sur le coloris”
The French word for the Italian noun “chiaroscuro” is clair-obscur. Simply, Chiaroscuro means light:dark or the contrast of light and shadow. Since the solidity of form is detected in the presence of light, the use of chiaroscuro is what painters use to create the illusion of 3-dimensional form. Without difference in shadow and light, a form would look flat. This effect of flatness comprises many great works of modern art; however, for realism, it is necessary to use chiaroscuro, the contrast of light and dark. The pioneers of chiaroscuro go way back to the Renaissance. They include Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael. For the later Baroque and Mannerist periods, Caravaggio and Rembrandt were pioneers.
One finds chiaroscuro in the oil paintings of daVinci, Raphael, and Rembrandt; however, this style is used in other media , too. Woodcut prints using several blocks each in a different tone would produce an image with chiaroscuro in the final print. Artists owe this discovery to a German: Hans Burgknair in 1508. Chiaroscuro is also created in drawings by using colored papers where light is depicted by white gouache and the dark shadows are depicted by various dark inks. To find examples of chiaroscuro in the 18th and 19th century, see works of Fragonard, specifically “The Swing”,Watteau, and Goya,specifically “Nude Maja at the Prado”.
When painters use lights and the dark contrasts, chiaroscuro shares characteristics with another technique: tenebrism, another Italian word meaning ” murky” and used often in Mannerist paintings. Both chiaroscuro and tenebrism use the contrast of light and dark in painting and drawing. The difference lies in how chiaroscuro is a painterly term describing how painters create the illusion of 3-dimensionality while tenebrism describes a compositional technique . When artists use tenebrism, they may paint some areas very dark for the purpose of allowing one or two areas on the canvas to appear strongly filled with light. The overall effect is very dramatic.
But unlike chiaroscuro, there is no modelling of a form to make the illusion of 3-dimensionality. Also, tenebrism connotes something negative while chiaroscuro is positive because it reveals a positive form. Another painterly word to include here is sfumato. DaVinci was the pioneer of using sfumato. When light and dark meet, sharp lines and contours appear. DaVinci wanted to soften these sharp lines created by the contrast of light and dark so he blended the borders “in the manner of smoke”. Sfumato means “vanished gradually like smoke”. To make sfumato, da Vinci used several translucent glazes over each other to create a gradual spectrum from light and dark. Giorgione and Correggio also employed sfumato to soften the edges.
Chiaroscuro, as previously mentioned, is used in paintings , drawings, and prints.It is also used in modern photography . In 1915, Cecil B.DeMille coined a new phrase while filming “The Warrens of Virginia”. The phrase which refers to dark and light contrast in photography is “Rembrandt lighting”. The story goes as such: de Mille was using a spotlight to create shadows on an actor, but Sam Goldwyn didn’t like that only half of the actor’s face was in light. Sam thought his patrons would only pay ½ price for the show. So DeMille eagerly quipped by describing the half-light as “Rembrandt lighting”. Sam bought the explanation and hoped his patrons would pay double! Rembrandt lighting is used primarily in photography. One light and a reflector or two lights are pointed towards a model. The effect creates a very natural looking image of the model. This was also popular because there was little need for lots of camera equipment to create the naturalness of the image. A distinguishing mark of Rembrandt lighting is the appearance of the illuminated triangle underneath the eye of the subject on the less illuminated side of the face of the model. This lighting lights up one side of the face while leaving the other side in shadow. Part of this shadowy area includes the geometric triangle which is no wider than the eye and no longer than the nose.
To conclude, oil painting is the best medium for using chiaroscuro. The pigment can be suspended in oils to make glazes that can be layered to create sfumato effects of dark and light. Tempera and egg emulsions are too opaque to create the translucency needed for blending, shading, and layered glazing. Put light glazes on top of dark tones and it is possible to create that memorable “figure emerging from the darkness”.
Alfred Stieglitz, well-known photographer of Georgia O'Keefe, believed in the fragmentary nature of the portrait, stating that a portrait must evoke the countless aspects of the self rather than capture likeness.
Abigail Inskeep Bradsford, by Rembrandt Peale, oil on canvas, 27"x22", 1803-8, courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago
In executing a portrait, getting to a likeness requires lots of skill and sensitivity to the person being drawn, painted or photographed. However, Stieglitz's thought makes portraiture painting an art, rather than a dead-end. Who we paint is more than the model's face we see. These following portraits were painted in a past time . Do we glean any meaning or prominent personality from these portraits? And does more expressiveness always capture the personal essence of the portrait?
- Abigail Bradsford was from a well-respected family of Philadelphia. She married John Inskeep who ran a successful publishing business. Rembrandt Peale painted both of their portraits, but in Abigail's, her head is tilted away from the viewer as was custom in that era. Women in the public arena averted their eyes so as to remain aloof to the mundane affairs of the world. Peale painted Abigail to include more female subjects in his portraiture collection.
- Matisse painted his wife Amelie in expressive colors and loose brushstrokes. The portrait was very controversial and marked a "stylistic change" from his earlier works. Woman with Hat also legitimized the burgeoning art movement: Fauvism. Fauve, meaning wild beast, may refer to the brightly colored paints used in their art.
- Lilla Cabot Perry (1848-1933) painted with the Impressionists and became a close friend of Monet. She was married and a mother of three daughters. Perry also wrote poetry and published a collection of her poems : The Jar of Dreams. There is some mystery in the name of this portrait. For some thought the Lady was Lilla's sister as she resembles another women in Perry's paintings. Also, the violets referred to in the title are not the flowers in the painting. These flowers are pansies when looking closely. It has been conjectured that Perry may have used the scientific classification of the word violet as meaning a small flowering annual of the viola genus which includes pansies.!
Why study color? For instance, color combinations can add to our sense of beauty and wellness. Knowing how these color happenings occur is illuminating rather than mysterious. Color communicates, too. The Munsell Color System is a good start to study color but also realize that this system has been reworked for the 21st century by the Pantone color system.
Artists use color abundantly to describe the objects that are being drawn, painted, or printed. The Fauves, an art movement led by Matisse, made color the subject and object of all painting. In a sense, this may be when color really arrives on the scene. The colors used in painting are different from those used in the digital processes of various media and the internet. Color systems are explained according to the medium which is used. For instance, painting uses an oil based medium that is subtractive: meaning the color system
begins with white and ends darker and eventually with black after all colors are added. With digital media, the system is reversed: color begins with black, gets lighter and ends in white. The primary colors used by a painter are yellow, red, and blue while those of a printer are yellow, magenta, and cyan. Theories of color were made by giants like Isaac Newton and Wilhelm Goethe. Goethe’s nine part harmonic triangle of primary, secondary, and tertiary colors reveals how color works as a system. He wrote a book in 1810 Theory of Colours. However, his acute observations were contradicted by the scientific community of Isaac Newton who originated the wavelength theory of colors. One of the differences in theories involved the color of black which Newton understood to be the absence of light . While Goethe theorized black was the sum of all colors and an active agent in the color wheel.
When color expresses emotion through the English language, color study becomes broader and more creative. Examples include : once in a blue moon, the red carpet treatment, out of the blue, brown bagging, white as a ghost, green thumb, and many more descriptive phrases. Another reason to study color is for its symbolic meaning which evolves from political and cultural contexts. For instance, the symbolism of white is not the same from country to country. In the Western hemisphere, white means purity while white in Japan signifies death. Another example is how red means war but also romance and love. Geographical locations and historical periods reveal differences in what colors may symbolize. Christianity uses color symbolically and so does Buddhism in a different way. Experiencing the full sensual sense of color brings joy to the viewer and with the creation of synthetic colors, color choices are limitless.
“Color must not simply ‘clothe’ the form, it must constitute it...when I use paint, I have the feeling of quantity- a surface of color which is necessary to me, and I modify its contour in order to determine my feeling clearly in a definitive way.” Matisse
Reaching back to the 15th century, Leonardo de Vinci was one of the first painters to describe the four primaries: red, yellow, green, and blue. He also included black and white. Sir Isaac Newton discovers the color spectrum in the year 1666. He joined the ends of the spectrum to form a circle which became the familiar color wheel. A century later, Le Bon discovered the nature of primary pigments: red, yellow, and blue. He learned how to make pigments from minerals and rocks and recorded their properties. That is how artists know that red comes from cinnabar, yellow from opriment, and blue from the deeply blue lapis lazuli. In 1766 Moses Harris discussed the three tiers of colors in his published The Natural Systems of Color , one of the rarest manuscripts in the history of color. The primaries referred to as primitive, fundamental, basic, or principal while the secondary colors were defined as the mixtures of 2 primaries. Secondary mixtures could be referred to as compound, mediate, or intermediate.
By the 20th century, color classification becomes more sophisticated. Albert Munsell was responsible for the 3-D color tree in use today. The centennial celebration of Munsell's death in June 1918 took place this June in Boston at the Mass College of Art and Design. The 3-D color tree comprises a vertical scale of values from 1-9 (dark to light). The horizontal branch of this tree is the chroma of color at its neutral gray saturation. As the chroma of a particular hue moves outward from the value scale, the hue approaches its lightest saturation. The Munsell tree comprises 12 gradations and 10 hues. Each of these hues or colors were given numbers. The numbers indicating paint colors originate from the Munsell color tree. To know primary colors in a more general and less historical way, consider red, yellow, and blue as the raw colors: capable of high intensity and very pure chroma. Beware, though. Film using only primary colors produces a very, ugly movie. Filmmakers discovered that using a variety of less saturated raw color does not tire the eyes as easily or look as artificial. None-the-less, cartoons are notorious for using raw colors at full strength. In storytelling, to use a brightly,saturated primary color emphasizes significance or importance. For example, Saint Mary wears a blue robe. Saturated primaries are indeed mood changers, like a thunderstorm graying the sky’s horizon.
Because our brains seek closure, there is a tendency to see incomplete patterns as a completed whole. This applies to color also. Seeing color opposites by staring at one color, looking away and then staring at a blank,white surface. What appears is the opposite of the first color which is an example of how our brains seek closure and wholeness. This afterimage
phenomenon is explained further by the popular Trichomatic theorydeveloped by Edwald Hering, physiologist (1834-1918).
Two artists, Titian and Michelangelo, used contrasting colors to enhance their paintings. Titian aimed for tonal unity by subduing the foreground and background with blending and avoiding the sharp contrasts of a silhouette. Michelangelo used color brilliantly. He painted crisp contour edges on colors contrasting the background hues. Michelangelo also used white and black to maximize the range of color in his paintings. Cangiantismo was an art term used to describe the use of high color contrasts. In fact, Venetians in the 16th century, criticized Michelangelo for his use of such “licentious colors".
Sources on Color:
- “Our experience is that we seem to simply see color, but it’s really much more like construction of our minds. (the receptor cones in the retina responsible for the perception of three colors) sensitive to overlapping distributions of long, medium, and short wavelengths of light all within a very narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum” Frank Durgin, p.25 Swarthmore College Bulletin Spring 2018
- www: study.com/academy/lesson/opponent-process-theory-of-color-vision
"All colors are the friends of their neighbors and the lovers of their opposites" Marc Chagall
The definition of a badger is a hairy, gray, nocturnal carnivorous mammal of Europe, Asia, and North America. It’s cousins are weasels, however, note that a badger is bigger and chunkier. The verb is to tease, nag, or bait; and the white spot on the badger’s head is distinctive. The badger is also the mascot of the University of Wisconsin since before 1949. The live badger morphed into a character when a UW art student created a paper mache head of this animal. With others who dressed the part of a badger mascot, the paper mache head became symbolic for the spirit of the UW at games and academic competitions.
The unveiling of the Buckys around Madison, Wisconsin and Dane County took place May 7th, 2018. The Bucky Parade follows in the tradition of the cow parades in cities world-wide since the first cow parade took place in Zurich, Switzerland twenty years ago. The artistic director of Zurich Walter Knapp became inspired by a previous public display of lion statues. The lion is a symbol for the city of Zurich. Walter Knapp called this first cow parade “Land in Sicht”, translated “Countryside in View”.
The concept of cows on parade migrated to Chicago when a business man Peter Hanig coined the phrase “Cows on Parade” in 1999. The idea of using a parade of painted fiberglass animals for a philanthropic fundraising purpose caught on. In Glendale, Ohio for example, large fiberglass black squirrels were also on parade, while many other cities did the same with frogs, pigs, and guitars!
For Madison, Wisconsin, the most recent and first cow parade here was twelve years ago. American Family Children’s Hospital and Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board sponsered the parade of 101 cows. Best Western InnTowner and the Highland Club became the official “moootel” for visiting parade goers. This May, the Bucky parade comprises eighty four Buckys compared to the 101 cows of the cow parade twelve years ago. Sixty four artists spent 129 days(4.3 months) designing, painting, and finishing their Buckys with a protective coat of lacquer. This public event is free and started May 7th to continue through September 12th,2018.
The Madison Area Sports Commission , the Greater Madison Convention and Visitors Bureau and the Best Western Inn Towner are some of the sponsors of this event while Channel 15 Madison is the media sponsor. The proceeds of a later auction of thirty Buckys will go to Garding Against Cancer, a new intiative in 2017 of coaches Greg and Michelle for advanced research in the cure for cancer.
For more photos and updates on the Bucky Parade throughout the summer see: https://buckyonparade.
Paintings may actually serve a purpose. Inspiration: looking at a beautiful painting does ignite those creative and disciplined urges. A creative looking for a mentor may find one in a particular painting or in a painterly style. People who like similar painters or a period of art history may form a community such as artists who favor the classical style.
Obama’s presidential portrait by Kehinde Wiley could serve some of these purposes for looking at art. First of all, he puts the former President outdoors away from the Oval Office and the White House. In an almost icon-fashion way, the painted Obama engages the viewer directly. The botanical, decorative background emerges behind Obama, at his sides, by his feet in front, and above climbing an invisible wall. The background of leaves and flowers emerges from behind to the foreground adding drama to the painting.
Like Kehinde Wiley’s other pieces, this one challenges the conventional views of power and status. This portrait painting is inspiring, shows mastery of painting technique and expressiveness, and for those who follow the recent development of Presidential portraiture, this one belongs to the canon. For the past fifty years of US electoral history, presidential portraits were collected to be kept in a collection. Several years into the making of this collection, the portraits of First Ladies were also included in order to be more equitable.
If there is a traditional objective to meet in these presidential portraits, it is to show the dignity and power of the office of the United States president. Reviewing past presidential portraits within the Smithsonian, Wiley was ready to have Obama carry a sword, riding his horse to the mountain top. Fortunately for everyone, Obama nixed this idea and asked Kehinde to bring the President’s portrait “down a knotch” in keeping with his vision of the government for the people and by the people. As portrait painters frequently do, they maintain a friendly and open rapport with their sitters. Indeed, Wiley and past President Obama were able to share their opinions about the portrait and had a good time together as painter and model.
At the finish of the painting, small details offer even more meaning to the piece. Obama is portrayed sitting in a chair recognizable to the style of antique chairs during the time in Black history when Sojourner Truth lived and became well-known. Being that Kehinde Wiley’s presidential painting was the first portrait of the first African-American president to be painted by an African American makes theses clues to black history within the painting more relevant and powerful. The botanicals represent in part, the contribution to this nation by our immigrants. They brought over to the New world plants unknown to American soil. These imported plants added so much to what was a very boring epicurean menu of the first settlers. Some of the plants in this painting include chrysanthemums that are the official flower of Chicago, jasmine the flower of Hawaii, and African blue lilies from Kenya to remember Obama’s father.
Because “racism cast a long shadow over art” the selection of Kehinde Wiley for the presidential portrait is even more significant. A landmark exhibit at the Whitney Museum in New York city in 1971, featured black American artists who painted abstractly. It was a landmark show because previously most black artists were confined to a traditional norm, which burdened an artist to always being a a true representative of the whole black culture. Black representation in art was different than in literature. Blacks were painted as slaves and in servitude to white culture. There were no black heroes painted in the Western tradition of art. However, there are a few exceptions: Fuseli’s “The Negro Revenged”, Joshua Reynold’s “Study of a Black Man”, and Theodore Gericault’s “The Raft of Medusa”. Goya was another exception. He painted the reality of black suppression by a white society. Therefore, to have a black artist painting a black American as president of the United States is quite exceptional in the history of western art.
It is not only Kehinde Wiley who is affecting the rest of American culture. Contemporary, young, black women artists like Lynette Yiadom-Baakye, Kara Walker, and Michelle Obama’s portraitist Amy Sherod are also putting pressure on Americans to recognize their work and how African Americans are equal members of the mainstream culture.